Christian specialises in the development and assessment of new technologies in the areas of ore sorting, ore pre-concentration and pre-weakening or ores.

Mineral Sorting and Separation:
Focused on the development of advanced technologies and sensing techniques for the detection, separation and upgrading of important minerals, such as copper, to maximise processing efficiencies. His work on novel technologies in this area includes MW/IR and HVP.

Microwave Processing:
Focused on promoting and applying the unique characteristics of microwaves as a novel processing technique in multiple industries including mining, oil & gas, waste remediation, chemical, food and energy, etc. 

Christian’s background is in chemical engineering and obtained a PhD in materials processing. Prior to coming to SMI-JKMRC he worked at the CSIRO (Minerals) and University of Nottingham where he conducted R&D on light metals production and microwave processing in a vast variety of industries including the minerals, energy, advanced materials and food. As a process engineer his expertise is in process development, in particular development of novel processes such as those that are developed at the JKMRC, and scaling these up from an idea to lab-scale to pilot-plant scale. He has been involved in large scale-up projects involving R&D development through to pilot-planting, commissioning and process optimisation as part of multi-disciplinary teams. Christian’s main research interest include Mineral Sorting and Separation and Microwave Processing.


Christian has been involved in applied research with the mining industry. He has been involved in the development and scale-up of novel processes such as CuNuWave (Rio Tinto), TiRO (Lightmetals Flagship), Vermiculite (UoN), Oil Drill Cuttings (UoN/NOV Brandt).


Christian actively collaborates with other Universities (UoN, Burapha University), Research Institutions (CSIRO, CRC-ORE) and Industry (Rio Tinto, Anglo, Newcrest, etc.) in his areas of interest.

Key Publications

Zahiri, Saden H., Antonio, Christian I. and Jahedi, Mahnaz (2009) Elimination of porosity in directly fabricated titanium via cold gas dynamic spraying. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209 2: 922-929. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.03.005

Antonio, Christian and Deam, Rowan T. (2007) Can "microwave effects" be explained by enhanced diffusion?. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 9 23: 2976-2982. doi:10.1039/b617358f

Antonio, C. and Deam, R. T. (2005) Comparison of linear and non linear sweep rate regimes in variable frequency microwave technique for uniform heating in materials processing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 169 2: 234-241. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.03.024

Antonio, Christian and Watanachai, Piyachat (2014) Variable frequency microwave curing of SU8 photoresist films. Advanced Materials Research, 931-932 101-105. doi:10.4028/

Kingman, Sam, Robinson, John, Antonio, Christian and Pereira, Igor (2010). Latest developments in the microwave processing of oil contaminated drill cuttings. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. 2010 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (MTT 2010), Anaheim, CA, United States, (1432-1435). 23-28 May 2010. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.2010.5517688


The majority of his research funding has been from industry and CRCs.